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One-time battery development process Feb 28, 2018

Ⅰ hydrogen fuel cell

Most notorious in this category is Panasonic's study of 40-year-old oxy-fuel cells that are 

both successful and the most dangerous battery products.


1. High discharge voltage, the new factory voltage up to 1.75V over the nickel-zinc battery 

1.7V, cut-off voltage is about 1.3V;

2. Low internal resistance, AA-type battery initial internal resistance of about 10 milliohms 

And fully charged new nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, as the hydrogen-oxygen reaction 

to generate liquid water to enhance electrolyte activity, hydrogen-oxygen battery is 

different from any other battery , Low resistance when the power is running out, only about 

3-5 milliohms;

3. Ultra-high capacitance, energy density of about 220% of the same volume of alkaline 

batteries and lithium batteries close;

4. Large discharge current, the peak current pulse can be as high as about 50A, far exceeding 

the white Philharmonic 10A upper limit and the upper limit of nickel-cadmium batteries 20A, 

and even can start the car ignition;

5 super clean environment, 0 pollution.


1. High manufacturing costs, because the production of hydrogen requires expensive 

electrolysis equipment, but also because hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature are gaseous, 

encapsulated their high cost of anti-voltage battery cans, resulting in the price of AA 

commercial batteries long-term in 15 a Near the festival, comparable to Sanyo Love Leopard 

price, more than love Le Pu production costs, since the acquisition of Philharmonic after 

Panasonic stopped this high price of the production of hydrogen and oxygen batteries;

2. Battery charge retention is not good, 3-year charge retention rate of less than 70%, much 

less alkaline than 90% for about 3 years, should not be stored for a long time, bought to be 

immediately used;

3. The initial high voltage lead to some of the general quality of the electrical needs of 

the battery in series work burned breakdown power supply circuit, resulting in irreversible 


4. Very poor low temperature performance, far less than nickel-cadmium batteries, -10 ° C 

when the battery maximum discharge current is less than 1% at 25 ° C to 45 ° C, the 

discharge is very difficult, and alkaline batteries Like garbage, but use more than 50% of 

the electricity of the oxy-cell, due to a substantial increase in water content, dilute the 

electrolyte concentration decreases, the freezing point has also increased, when the 

environment below -10 ° C will be frozen by water lead to hang Off;

5. Because hydrogen and oxygen are too active, especially hydrogen, the pressure on the 

pressure vessel is very high, even Panasonic, such a high-tech company can not guarantee the 

quality of the battery yield of 100%, the battery for a long time or not Small current use, 

more and more liquid water in the container, the container itself under long-term pressure 

fatigue metal fatigue, and then leaked, leading to short-circuit the battery, because the 

battery is strictly hydrogen and oxygen content ratio, and within Small resistance does not 

cause an explosion, but the resulting liquid leakage can be very serious, because the leaking 

battery is likely to have a very high residual capacity, resulting in an instant 50A short-

circuit current, you can generate ultra-high heat locally in the electrical equipment, you 

can Instantly burn a wireless keyboard or mouse.

Because of these shortcomings so the oxy-hydrogen was eliminated, out of the stage of 


Ⅱ alkaline batteries

This is the most common battery available everywhere.


1. High discharge initial voltage, the new factory voltage up to 1.6V, cut-off voltage of 

about 0.9V;

2. Affordable, good market penetration;

3 high capacity, low current environment, high quality alkaline batteries can release up to 

about 3000MAH power;

4. Ultra-low self-discharge, high-quality alkaline batteries can still maintain more than 80% 

of the electricity ten years later, suitable for preservation of long-term use;

5.Hg-free clean and environmental protection, low pollution.


1. Not very high fluctuations in current, the voltage fluctuations, such as the use of the 

recorder in the noise will be obvious;

2. There is no obvious discharge platform, intermittent large current use during the callback 

speed is not ideal, such as camera flash, more suitable for more than 0.1C discharge 

environment continued to use, because the voltage will drop quickly, and it is difficult once 

Put on electricity;

3. Very poor low temperature performance, -10 ° C can only release about 15% at 25 ° C 

power, not suitable for cold outdoor use, discharge is very difficult;

4. High internal resistance, and the more with the internal resistance up faster, the end of 

the discharge resistance up to 10 ohms or more, the voltage requirements of the high 

occasions may have a lot of electricity can not drive the battery, because the battery 

internal resistance divided Too much voltage

5. It is always difficult to completely overcome the leakage problem, I believe we all 

understand that alkaline batteries are not suitable for more than a year to stay in a device, 

a lot of equipment have been damaged by the leakage of alkaline batteries.

Ⅲ carbon battery

This is a once common but less common but commercially available one-time battery.


1. Cheap, really cheap, although they do not see any small factory production of carbon 

batteries, but such as Panasonic Toshiba such an international brand, the price of carbon 

batteries are about 1;

2. High initial voltage, the new factory voltage up to 1.67V, cut-off voltage of about 1.1V;

3. Steel shell carbon battery reliability so far irreplaceable, almost no leakage possible to 

ensure the safety of equipment;

4. Low self-discharge, low to what extent I do not know, the official and the evaluation did 

not have data, in short, very low on the right, I bought in 1996 in Japan Casio calculator 

configuration AA model Panasonic steel red carbon Battery 1, said the shelf life of only two 

years, but 22 years, the battery neither leak nor rust, open a test voltage up to 1.48V, the 

calculator can also be used normally;

5. The real capacity of the carbon battery is the most misunderstood by everyone, entirely 

due to businesses with ulterior motives, said an alkaline battery stronger than 6 carbon 

batteries, in fact, the real high-quality carbon battery capacity is very high, I responsible 

for that, such as Panasonic Red AA model carbon batteries, the actual measured capacity of up 

to 2000AMH above Sanyo Philharmonic Low self-released nickel-metal hydride, but why so many 

assessments say AA model carbon only about 400MAH then Down in the following shortcomings of 

carbon batteries to interpret.


1. Battery reaction is slow, that is, the callback speed is slow, and the older the battery 

back to the slower, because the carbon battery electrolyte is paste state, in the course of 

the paste will be more and more thick, and power Source is the electrochemical corrosion of 

zinc skin in the battery, the reaction was blocked so the discharge is slower, because the 

carbon steel battery is to be completely corroded zinc skin clean, so the conventional 

measurement of carbon battery capacity of the battery Continued use of 100MA so-called small 

current is also too large, the battery is not so fast response speed, so only one poor 

release of about 400AMH power; when the continuous current dropped to 10MA, the battery can 

release about 1000MAH Electricity; when the continuous current is reduced to about 1MA, you 

can squeeze out all the carbon battery power, you can release more than 2000MAH power. So 

when using quartz cells in the carbon battery feel the length of time and alkaline batteries 

are very close, if the alkaline performance with 2 years, that high-quality carbon steel with 

1 year and a half years, certainly no problem;

2. The internal resistance is really large, paste-like electrolyte caused, but the more the 

greater the more;

3. Low temperature performance dropped seriously, although not as alkaline batteries decline 

so bad, but because of its low discharge capacity, so even more difficult to discharge at low 

temperatures, but generally used in ultra-small current device is not easy to feel;

4. Continuous discharge characteristics of poor, intermittent discharge electrical optional;

5. Although the formula has been improved, but there is still some pollution.

Ⅳ one-time lithium iron battery

This is not a long battery birth, with very good discharge capability.


1. High initial voltage, the new factory voltage up to 1.79V, discharge platform about 1.5V, 

the cut-off voltage is about 1.15V;

2 excellent battery capacity and sustained large current discharge characteristics, fully 

exceed alkaline batteries, rolling carbon battery level;

3. Ordinary current intensity irregular fluctuations in the form, the voltage remained almost 

constant, is the best power supply, voice recorder and other mobile audio recording equipment 


4. Excellent low temperature performance, although not as good as nickel-cadmium batteries, 

but the most outstanding in the disposable batteries, -10 ° C environment can release most 

of the electricity;

5 inherent low self-discharge characteristics, 5 years to maintain more than 90% of 

electricity, the internal structure of closed, easy to leak, easy to store for a long time.


1. expensive, more than all alkaline batteries and some low price self-released nickel-metal 

hydride batteries, and can not be charged, the average consumer is not easy to accept;

2. The initial high voltage led to some of the general quality of low-power electrical 

appliances need four or more batteries in series work burned breakdown power supply circuit, 

resulting in irreversible loss of some of the inferior disposable lithium iron battery open 

circuit voltage can exceed 2.0V , Far exceeding the IEC standard, which is also an important 

reason for the domestic one-time export restrictions on lithium-iron batteries, seriously 

affecting the promotion of such products;

3 less buying channels, the market is difficult to see, not easy to buy;

4. Battery internal resistance is high, far more than the alkaline resistance of the battery, 

the new battery internal resistance of more than 200 milliohms, after a period of time the 

internal resistance will rise sharply, the use of high-current heating serious short-circuit 

explosion danger , No nickel-metal hydride battery safety;

5. On the surface of a large capacity, the actual use of intermittent or continuous high-

power electrical appliances with low self-discharge NiMH batteries, because the battery 

discharge in the late, more voltage added to the battery resistance, More current consumption 

in the battery fever, the use of such batteries in the small current device better.