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Rechargeable battery evolutionary route Mar 01, 2018



1, nickel-cadmium batteries


Technology is very mature, very good power battery.

advantage:

1. Low price, easy to accept, the cheapest rechargeable battery types;

2. Low internal resistance, high charge and discharge efficiency;

3 resistance to overcharge and over discharge, the actual life can reach the nominal 500 cycle life;

4 large discharge current, AA model battery peak up to 20A current;

5. Extremely low temperature performance, other batteries below -20 ° C is not hanging is the dramatic decline in discharge effect, while the nickel-cadmium batteries are the least affected, and at -20 ° C nickel-cadmium batteries when the charge retention rate is excellent, 3 years to maintain about 90% of electricity, with practical significance, which is why the military is still unable to get rid of nickel-cadmium batteries;

Disadvantages:

1. Low capacity, almost the lowest rechargeable batteries;

2. Memory effect serious, each must try to recharge with electricity, and once full;

3. Serious pollution, cadmium is heavy metal, pollute the environment;

4 initial low voltage, full power 1.45V, discharge platform at 1.25V or so;

5 at 25 ° C at room temperature self-discharge serious, full charge of electricity loss of 25% -30% per month, 3 months or so electricity depleted, with the use of charge as needed.


2, nickel-metal hydride batteries


Technology is very mature, very good high-capacity battery

advantage:

1. Low price, easy to accept, cheaper rechargeable battery types;

2. Low internal resistance, charge-discharge efficiency is relatively high;

3. High capacity, nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries is about 300%;

4 clean, low pollution;

5. Memory effect is weak, do not have to be recharged every time with electricity, easy maintenance;

Disadvantages:

1. Impatience overcharge and over discharge, the actual life simply can not reach the nominal life of 1000 cycles, not even as good as nickel-cadmium battery life;

2. Poor low temperature performance, the discharge effect below -10 ° C drastic reduction, discharge difficulties;

3. Discharge current in general, AA model battery peak is difficult to exceed 10A current;

4. The initial voltage is low, full power 1.38V, discharge platform at 1.2V or so;

5 at 25 ° C at room temperature, serious self-discharge, full charge loss of 30% -35% per month, 2-3 months or so electricity depleted, you need to use with the charge.


3, nickel-zinc batteries


An immature semi-finished battery, enthusiasts exclusive, there is a certain significance.

advantage:

1. High-voltage discharge platform, the initial full power voltage up to 1.7V, discharge platform about 1.55V, cut-off voltage 1.4V, suitable for high voltage electrical appliances;

2. Low internal resistance, no nickel-cadmium battery internal resistance is lower than ordinary nickel-hydrogen excellent;

3 higher capacity, nickel-cadmium battery capacity of more than 200%, close to the nickel-metal hydride battery capacity;

4 no memory effect, do not need to put the full charge again;

5. Clean and environmental protection, low pollution;

Disadvantages:

1. Impatience overcharge and over discharge, overcharge or over discharge will lead to the battery completely scrapped;

2. Charger to determine full of very difficult, in order to prevent over-charge, so the battery is generally difficult to achieve full power state, the actual use of capacity than nickel-cadmium batteries have no advantage;

3. 25 ° C at room temperature self-discharge serious, full charge of electricity loss of 25% -35% per month, 2-3 months or so electricity depleted, you need to always maintain the state of electricity, time-consuming and laborious;

4 save difficulties, whether factory or individual, to maintain battery state of electricity are expensive;

5. Too few effective cycles, the number of cycles Merchants manufacturers are generally afraid to advertise, because no matter how the preservation, the battery life of less than 100 cycles, the actual user may use only about 10 times, once not pay attention Overcharged or overdone to play over.


4, ultra-low self-discharge NiMH battery



The most popular AA / AAA rechargeable battery types, technology is mature, the price from high to low have, have a good market.

advantage:

1. Of course, ultra-low self-discharge, the domestic love of her husband can be measured actually 3 years 65% of remaining power, domestic love Le Pu can do 70% of 3 years, Japan's local FDK Philharmonic can do 10 years 70% Quite awesome

2. Low internal resistance, fast call back, made of AA-type low self-discharge NiMH battery internal resistance of about 40 milliohms, Japan's local FDK Philharmonic can do 20 milliohms below the new full of nickel-cadmium batteries;

3. Larger discharge current, although the current domestic production can be close to 10A, but Japan's local FDK Philharmonic can exceed 10A, with good high-current discharge capability;

4. Memory effect further weakened to almost no, do not have to first discharge and recharge;

5. Low temperature performance has been greatly improved, although the domestic low self-released nickel-metal hydride still to be improved, but Japan's local FDK love Lepu -20 ° C below can have a good discharge capacity, although not as good as the conditions of nickel-cadmium, but Also very close

Disadvantages:

1. Impatience overcharge and overdischarge, can not and nickel-cadmium battery than that there is no way;

2. The actual use of AA / AAA type of life simply can not reach the nominal 2100 cycle life, even if every time but also pay attention to filling too will not do, the instrument measured Smart Charger AA 400MA slow charge 200MA slow release, AAA type 200MA slow charge 100MA slow release, AA type 60% capacity life is only about 600 times, AAA type 60% capacity life expectancy is only about 300 times; If you use fast charge hung up faster;

3. A higher price, universal access difficulties;

4 purchase channels are limited, counterfeit goods rampant;

5. The initial voltage is low, full power 1.42V, discharge platform at 1.25V or so.


5, lithium iron phosphate rechargeable batteries


In recent years, the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries, compared with other AA / AAA-type batteries have a great advantage.

advantage:

1. Ultra-high discharge voltage, full discharge initial discharge voltage up to 3.4V, discharge platform 3.2V or so, cut-off voltage as low as 2.0V, a battery reaches the other two AA / AAA battery voltage sum;

2. Super resistance to over-discharge characteristics, which is absolutely not available in other types of lithium batteries characteristics, with lithium batteries do not have the memory effect can be used with the charge, is very convenient;

3. Super high temperature performance, the maximum operating temperature up to 75 ° C environment, suitable for harsh environments;

4. Cycle life conservatively calculated in more than 2000 times, different from the Plena nickel-hydrogen battery of 2100 laboratory data, lithium iron phosphate rechargeable battery life of 2000 times the actual use is not difficult to achieve;

5. Lithium batteries are inherently low self-discharge characteristics, although not so good as a one-time lithium iron, but also with a low self-discharge NiMH battery;

Disadvantages:

1. During sintering in the preparation of lithium iron phosphate, there is a possibility that iron oxide is reduced to elemental iron in a high-temperature reducing atmosphere. The elemental iron can cause micro-short circuit of the battery, which is the most taboo substance in the battery. As the number of charging and discharging of the battery increases, the self-discharge becomes more and more serious until the meaning of practical use is lost. This is also Japan has not the material as a major source of power lithium-ion battery cathode material;

2. Lithium iron phosphate has some performance defects, such as tap density and compaction density is very low, resulting in lower energy density lithium-ion battery, the capacity and low self-discharge Ni-MH battery compared to no advantage;

3. Low temperature performance is poor, even if the nano-carbon coating and did not solve this problem, although there are manufacturers claim that lithium iron phosphate battery capacity retention at low temperatures is not bad, but that is smaller in the discharge current and discharge Cut-off voltage is very low, in this situation, the general equipment simply can not start working;

4 material preparation costs and the battery manufacturing costs are higher, the battery yield is low, there is not a low probability of leakage. Nanofication and carbon coating of lithium iron phosphate, while increasing the electrochemical performance of the material, pose other problems such as reduced energy density, increased cost of synthesis, poor electrode processing performance, and harsh environmental requirements. Although LiFe and P are abundant in lithium iron phosphate and their cost is relatively low, the cost of lithium iron phosphate prepared is not low. Even if the R & D cost is removed, the cost of the material plus higher The cost of preparing the battery, will make the final unit of high energy storage costs;

5. Product consistency is poor. At present, there is not a domestic lithium iron phosphate material factory to solve this problem. From the material preparation point of view, the synthesis of lithium iron phosphate is a complex multiphase reaction with solid phosphates, iron oxides and lithium salts, plus carbon precursors and reducing gas phase. In this complex reaction process, it is difficult to ensure the consistency of the reaction.


6, 3.7V to 1.5V lithium polymer battery


The latest development of AA / AAA rechargeable batteries, very eye-catching concept products.

advantage:

1. With lithium-polymer battery ultra-high capacity characteristics, the same volume under the highest capacity;

2. Built-in battery DC / DC buck regulator, the output voltage is stable 1.5V output, is the ideal power supply;

3. Built-in battery protection board, the complete elimination of lithium polymer battery over the situation occurred;

4. Fully enclosed battery structure to prevent battery leakage occurred;

5. Clean and environmental protection, low pollution;

Disadvantages:

1. The natural decay and inertness of lithium polymer battery cause the capacity of lithium battery to decay constantly from the moment of leaving the factory. The higher the stored voltage is, the faster the self-decay, the longer the charging time of each small current, the faster the aging , Each time the high current charging time is shorter, the internal resistance rose faster;

2. Used in the 1.5V battery device comes with additional sophisticated precision control circuit Durability and reliability In order to match the life of the lithium battery itself led to the cost is difficult to decline;

3. Currently used AA / AAA-type batteries are very limited occasions, and are basically ultra-low power devices, allowing consumers to pay, and then put a huge price to upgrade the battery capacity is less urgent;

4. DC / DC buck integrated voltage regulator integrated in the battery and the battery protection board together can be considered a very small power equipment, in particular DC / DC buck regulator IC since the power is indeed Difficult to reduce can not be ignored, resulting in the lithium-polymer battery has been the high-capacity and low self-release features become meaningless, full power 3.7V to 1.5V lithium polymer battery in any temperature environment can not put half a year almost no Electricity; the other AA / AAA rechargeable batteries at full power storage temperature of about 10 ° C for six months, the most common nickel-metal hydride batteries can retain more than 50% of the power, which makes the tragedy of this battery fate reoccupy Escaped

5. The price is too high, is the highest price AA / AAA-type rechargeable battery, and the current low self-released NiMH battery has enough cheap and durable, basically unnecessary with high cost lithium battery replaced, four love her husband Plus silly charge combination price is a few dozen dollars, silly charge can be described as simple and cheap, durable, buy a dozen years do not bother, the price is a stumbling block to promote such batteries.